lunes, 17 de septiembre de 2018




As a student of Technical graphics you are about to learn how to express your ideas using drawings, sketches and symbols. Ideas that are presented like this are easily understood by anyone who understands the language of Technical Graphics.
We live in a technological age. Every product and structure you see today began as an idea in somebody’s head.
Ones a new invention is thought of, a long process of design, refinement and manufacture is undertaken before the product is eventually sold.

Technical Graphics Equipment

Pencils are use for drawing lines. Different types of pencils allow you to draw lines of different weight and thickness. The grade of a pencil is denoted by the letters H, B.
H= Hard
B= Black
Types of pencils:
            Wooden pencil
            Fine line pencil or Mechanical pencil (refills)
            Clutch pencil
Graduated ruler
This is a precision tool we use to measure distances. It is usually made of plastic and has a bevelled edge (borde biselado) with the measurements marked in millimetres.
Set Squares
Set squares are use for drawing vertical and inclined lines.  Set squares are made from transparent plastic and there are two main types.
     - 45º set square- used to draw vertical lines and lines at 45º.
     - 30º/60º set square- used to draw vertical lines and lines at 30º and 60º
A protractor is used for measuring angles.
A compass is used to draw circles and arcs. Types: compass, a pencil compass and a bow compass.
Drawing paper
All technical graphics work is completed on drawing paper which comes in a number of standard sizes.
A0= 1189 mm x 84 mm= 1 m2
A1=  841mm x 594 mm
A2= 594 mm x 420 mm
A3= 420 mm x 297 mm
A4= 297 mm x 210 mm
A5= .......
Drawing Aids and Stencils
            - French Curves
            - Flexi Curves
            - Stencils: there are used for the drawing of circles, ellipses as well as various   graphical symbols.
            - Ink Pens: ink pens are used to draw lines of precise thickness.

How to draw parallel lines using set square
How to draw perpendicular lines using set square
Drawing angles with the set of triangles

lunes, 8 de enero de 2018



Human Figure
Proportion and What Is Meant by Out of Proportion. For example : If a picture of a man were drawn with the head twice as long as the head should be, as is shown below, that would be called out of proportion, because it would be unnatural.

Drawing the Human Body in Correct Proportions
It should be in "good proportion," which means it should be near the natural size as compared with other parts of the body. The ability to draw the figure in proper proportion requires considerable practice, close observation and accurate eye-measurement.
Drawing Men, Women, and Children
Proportions of the Human Figure: The Greek statues have regulated and determined the standard of beauty in art. These proportions, however, vary in individual cases and individual tastes. They are, however, valuable as a foundation from which modifications may be made.
In the Greek statues, the height of a developed man was usually eight heads; that is, the head was one-eighth the length of the body.
The height of a woman, Greek standard, about seven heads.
The human figure may be divided into four parts of equal length, namely:
1. From the top of the head to the arm-pit. 2. From the arm-pit to the middle of the body. 3. From the middle of the body to the knees. 4. From the knees to the soles of the feet.
From finger-tip to finger-tip, when the arms are extended at right angles to the body equals the length of the entire figure from crown to toes.
The face may be divided into three parts:
1. From the top of the forehead to the root of the nose.
2. From the root of the nose to the bottom of the nose.
3. From the bottom of the nose to the bottom of/the chin.
The ear is the length of the nose and its general direction is parallel to it. From the top of the shoulder to the elbow measures twice the length of the face. From the elbow to the wrist, is one head.
The hand measures three-quarters of a head from the tip of the middle finger to the wrist. The foot measures one-sixth of the whole length of the body.
These proportions are not exact or to be arbitrarily followed.
Drawing the Human Figure
Learning how to draw the Human Form efficiently and effectively takes a lot of time, practice and patience. I don’t pretend to be a master of anatomically correct drawing, but I do attempt to consult my charts and references often when I am trying to establish a believable looking figure. Understanding the structure of the human body and its extents and limits is the key in creating forms that are lifelike and realistic in a relative sense – you could be doing life drawings and attempt to be infinitely realistic, or you may be making simplistic cartoons or caricatures which should have some semblance of being anatomically correct.
There are many current and aspiring artists who neglect to refer to the basic fundamentals of anatomy and proportion and dismiss blatant errors as drawing in their own particular style. I’m not going to argue about being right and being wrong in this aspect, but if a body appears jarring and awkward to most people, chances are you’ve done something wrong when you were putting the pieces together. If something isn’t right about a figure that is meant to resemble the human form, (something that you are completely connected to and know and understand) you’ll notice right away. At times – when you draw it yourself, you become so engrossed in your work that you overlook the obvious. To avoid these embarrassing mistakes, make sure you take some time to review the basics of the human form and study the details before leaping into drawing subjects you don’t have a lot of practice with.
Here’re some examples of anatomically correct proportions that you should adhere to in order to achieve realistic looking figures.

Proportions - Male

Proportions - Male
Note that you’ll want to determine the height of your male on page, divide the height by 8, and work from there – you’ll see there are specific ratios for certain areas of the body. The measurements are determined by head units – one of the 8 divisions you set up is the size of the human head – everything is in relation to that one size.
· The body width = 2 1/3 heads
· The body height = 8 heads
· Distance between nipples on chest = 1 head
· Width of calf muscles together at lower arc = 1 head
· Bottom of the knees = 2 heads from ground level
For further reference, the diagram has a scale in feet to give you an idea of where certain body parts would be in relation to the heights/widths of other objects (vehicles, furniture, etc)

Proportions - Female

Proportions - Female
For women, the ratios differ slightly as the average form is smaller then the form of an average man. The overall height is measured in 8 Head Units, but because the female head is proportionately smaller, the figure will be smaller.
· The body width = 2 heads wide
· Waist = 1 head wide
· Buttocks = 1 1/2 heads wide
· Width of calf muscles together at mid-point = 1 head wide
· Bottom of the knees = 2 heads from ground level
Now you can alter the proportions slightly to exaggerate features, but you shouldn’t stray too far from the aforementioned guidelines, otherwise your figures will appear alien and awkward.
I hope this short lesson helps you improve on your technique.

viernes, 20 de enero de 2017


1º ESO Masters of painting

The elements of Visual Language
Dots, lines, shapes, texture, colours and volume

          A dot is a mark that shows the beginning of a work or the end of it.
          It is the very basic element whereby an art work or a design starts. Nothing will be done without the dots. It’s the most basic thing.
          A dot marks a point which people will look at and concentrate on.
          Dots are used to amplify perception and that does not mean only one dot; a dot in architecture can mean a central point of forms or objects near or close together.
          Dots that are aligned together create a line.
          Dots are used to create feel or texture to create form, space and texture.
          Dots are used to create tones etc.
One dot is a point, a number of dots create different elements that are important to showcase a design.
Dots make shapes and forms

          A line is a combination of a series of dots that are continuous, with an exact distance in between each dot.
1.       Shapes and forms
2.       Patterns,
3.       Colour tones,
4.       Texture
5.        Space
6.       Movement

By using the right lines in a work, you are able to create something that has all of the elements which include the above: form, texture, tone, pattern, space and movement.
They are many materials that create lines, from pencils, ball point pens, brushes, technical pens, or even charcoal. A line shows emotions depending on the type of stroke that has been done.
v  Lines that are horizontal normally reflect peacefulness, and serenity: these lines, regardless of the thickness or appearance are flat.
v  Vertical lines are lines that go straight up, these lines shows strength, and stability.
v  Lines with points, angles or edges show direction. It shows the focus point of the movement that should be followed. These lines are used to direct to an important space of order. It serves as a sign and movement.
v  Lines that are radiating from a centre, these lines give an impression that of an energy source, light and attention. It radiates from an important centre to allow us to concentrate on the centre. It could show direction, movement and connection. It is a node and shows importance.

Gradation of tones

          Shape is the creation of when the end of a line meets the start of the same line. Shapes can be just a flat plane that is surrounded by an outer line and does not hold any mass.
          Shape is perceived as an idea of the form or how it looks.
           Shapes are composed in positive and negative ways. Positive shapes mean the shape of the object on the area it is located. Negative shapes are the shapes of the background that the object is on. Normally to emphasize on the object or area, they are usually darkened to show concentration.
          There are 2 types of shapes, Geometrical and Organic Shapes. Geometrical Shapes are shapes that have exact angles at every edge and they are designed to be that way, they were done with that intention. These shapes include circles, squares, triangles, and rectangles etc

          Organic Shapes are shapes that do not have a proper angle at its edge and are made to be natural. They were not intended to be that way and are usually drawn with the guidance of intuition and free-handed.

Written work
·        Biography
·        Painting style
·        Masterpieces
·        A painting

*Two pages for section students and one page for program students. It should be done by both sides and handwritten.

Role Play

For a short period of time you will be …
                                             ......, but how?

Working in pairs (Each pair needs to prepare a  4 minutes presentation about the artist that they were working on it previously)
Preparing a presentation (Use your imagination and thinking about yourself as the artist or the master piece) 
Costumes (Try to find something to identify your painter or the picture). This is not compulsory.
Performing (Each pair have to perform in front of the class using the grammar in the correct way and the appropriate vocabulary.