lunes, 11 de marzo de 2019




There are two theories that explain how colors work and interact. The light, or additive, theory deals with radiated and filtered light. The pigment, or subtractive, theory deals with how white light is absorbed and reflected off of colored surfaces. This course will investigate the pigment theory.
Light theory starts with black -- the absence of light. When all of the frequencies of visible light are radiated together the result is white (sun) light. The color interaction is diagramed using a color wheel with red, green and blue as primary colors. Primary here means starting colors. These are the three colors that the cones in the eye sense. This is an RGB color system (Red, Green and Blue).
The primary colors mix to make secondary colors: red and green make yellow, red and blue make magenta and green and blue make cyan. All three together add up to make white light. That is why the theory is called additive.
Pigments behave almost the opposite of light. With pigments a black surface absorbs most of the light, making it look black. A white surface reflects most of the (white) light making it look white. A colored pigment, green for instance, absorbs most of the frequencies of light that are not green, reflecting only the green light frequency. Because all colors other than the pigment colors are absorbed, this is also called the subtractive color theory.
If most of the green light (and only the green light) is reflected the green will be bright. If only a little is reflected along with some of the other colors the green will be dull. A light color results from lots of white light and only a little color reflected. A dark color is the result of very little light and color reflected.

The color wheel fits together like a puzzle - each color in a specific place. Being familiar with the color wheel not only helps you mix colors when painting, but in adding color to all your art creations.

Primary colors are not mixed from other elements and they generate all other colors.
By mixing two primary colors, a secondary color is created.
Intermediate, or Tertiary, colors are created by mixing a primary and a secondary.

Primary colors are not mixed from other elements and they generate all other colors.

Subtractive Color: Cyan Yellow and Magenta pigments combine to produce other colors. Adding pigments together makes darker colors. All three make black.

By mixing two primary colors, a secondary color is created.
          Magenta + Yellow = Orange-Red
          Yellow + Cyan = Green
          Cyan + Magenta = Purple
Intermediate, or Tertiary, colors are created by mixing a primary and a secondary.


Color values are the lights and darks of a color you create by using black and white (‘neutrals”) with a color.  This makes hundreds of more colors from the basic 12 colors of the wheel.
white + color = tint
     - color + black = shade


Neutral COLORS
The principles of color mixing let us describe a variety of colors, but there are still many colors to explore.  The neutral colors contain equal parts of each of the three primary colors.  Black, white, gray and sometimes brown are considered "neutral”.
Tints are lightened colors.  Always begin with white and add a bit of color to the white until the desired tint is obtained.  This is an example of a value scale for the tints of blue.
Shades are darkened colors.  Always begin with the color and add just a bit of black at a time to get the desired shade of a color.  This is an example of a value scale for the shades                of blue.
Color Schemes
Color Schemes are a systematic way of using the color wheel to put colors together… in your art work, putting together the clothes you wear, deciding what colors to paint your room…..

Monochromatic, Complementary, Analogous, Warm and Cool

Monochromatic: “Mono” means “one”, “Chroma” means “color”… monochromatic color schemes have only one color and its values.  The following slide shows a painting done in a monochromatic color scheme.
Complementary: Complementary colors are opposite on the color wheel provided a high contrast - if you want to be noticed wear complementary colors!
Analogous: The analogous color scheme is 3-5 colors adjacent to each other on the color wheel.  This combination of colors provides very little contrast.
Warm: Warm colors are found on the right side of the color wheel.  They are colors found in fire and the sun.  Warm colors make objects look closer in a painting or drawing.

Cool: Cool colors are found on the left side of the color wheel. They are the colors found in snow and ice and tend to recede in a composition.

domingo, 3 de marzo de 2019



Today, we are taking a look at a number of these typical cinematic camerashots and angles to learn how they could be incorporated into still photography.
  • The Medium Shot. ...
  • The Close-up. ...
  • The Long Shot. ...
  • The Dutch Angle. ...
  • The Low Angle. ...
  • The High Angle. ...
  • The Extreme Close-up. ...
  • The Over The Shoulder.

Shot Types (CS, CU, ECU, ELS, FS, LS, MCU, MS)

The term “shot” is typically found in film/television terminology to describe the field size of a single moment in a scene. Field size refers to the distance between the camera and the subject in addition to the focal length of the lens. To translate this into comic books is to imagine that the panel is a camera and it is shooting the subject. The distance between the “edges” of the panel and the subject determines the type of shot.
There are a few common shots used in comic books: close-up, extreme close-up, extreme long shot, long shot, full shot, medium close-up, and medium shot. Each one is used strategically to convey meaning, emotion, and hierarchy of detail.

Figure 1. An extreme close-up of superman. Image source: Morrison, G., & Porter, H. (1998). JLA Volume 22. Burbank, CA: DC Comics.

Extreme close-up shots focus on part of a subject’s face—such as lips curling into a smile or eyebrows rising in suspicion—or an important object. This type of shot allows the reader to understand what the character is thinking based on visual cues. Like a close-up shot, it is often associated more with emotion than environment—specifically the character’s feelings regarding his or her environment. In this panel from JLA #22, artists Howard Porter, John Dell, and Oscar Jinenez illustrate only part of Superman’s face, specifically his eyes and eyebrows, which are conveying the emotions of anger and determination. The audience is able to clearly understand his thoughts and feelings in this moment and most likely would be able to even without the text.

Figure 2. A close-up shot of Superman eating a pickle. Image source: O’Neil, D. Murphy, A , & Swan, C., . (1971). The Amazing New Adventures of SupermanVolume 1 #233. Burbank, CA: DC Comics.

Close-up shots (or close shots) contain the head, neck, and the tops of the shoulders of the subject. It is usually used to allow the reader to focus on the emotions of the character because the facial expressions are so visible.  In this panel from The Amazing New Adventures of Superman #233, Curt Swan and Murphy Anderson illustrate a very clear image of Superman’s facial expressions and emotions while eating the pickle.
A medium close-up shows a subject from the chest up. It is more intimate than the medium shot, but not portray feelings as much as the close-up or extreme close-up shots. In All Star Superman #11,  Frank Quitely shows Superman from his chest and up. While the panel is meant to be about Superman’s emotional state in this moment, it also allows the audience to see the action of him taking his uniform off.

Figure 3. Medium close-up of Superman removing his uniform. Image source: Morrison G. & Quietly, F. (2008). All-Star Superman Volume 1 #11. Burbank, CA: DC Comics.

A medium shot shows the subject from the waist upwards. Because the panel won’t be able to capture the features on the subjects face as well as a close-up or extreme close-up, this shot is   typically used for less emotional information.

Figure 4. A medium shot of Superman. Image source: Miller, Frank. (1986). The Dark Knight Returns Volume 1 #14. Burbank, CA: DC Comics.

In this panel from The Dark Knight Returns #4, Frank Miller, Klaus Janson, and Lynn Varley create a medium shot of Superman. It reveals little about his emotions and more about him as a character through the focus on his cape, symbol, and belt.
A full shot shows the subjects full body, but does not include much space between them and the edges of the panel. Therefore, the focus is less on the environment than it is on the subject. In this panel from The Man of Steel #6, John Byrne illustrates Superman’s full body, but pays little attention to the world around him. Therefore, the focus is on him and the audience can learn more about his character specifically.

Figure 5. A full shot of Superman. Image source: Byrne, J. (1986). The Man of Steel Volume 1 #6. Burbank, CA: DC Comics.

In long shots, the entirety of the subject is in the panel. There will be significant space between the subject and the edges of the panel to reveal the environment. Often, the subject and the environment are of equal importance in the panel. Frank Quitely and Jamie Grant illustrate this panel from All Star Superman #10 to show the entirety of Superman’s body and the buildings behind him.  It conveys the feeling of unity between Superman and the young girl and the sense of isolation they may feel from the world around them.
Figure 6. A long shot of Superman and a young girl. Image source: Morrison, G. & Quitely, F. (2008). All-Star Superman Volume 1 #10. Burbank, CA: DC Comics.
 An extreme long shot shows the subject so far away that he/she/it is barely visible. It is usually meant to be an “establishing shot,” meaning it is the first shot in a scene and informs the reader of the setting of the scene. However, it can be used to provide context for a scene, show a subject’s relationship to the environment, or be an artistic choice the illustrator makes.

miércoles, 23 de enero de 2019



Human Figure
Proportion and What Is Meant by Out of Proportion. For example : If a picture of a man were drawn with the head twice as long as the head should be, as is shown below, that would be called out of proportion, because it would be unnatural.

Drawing the Human Body in Correct Proportions
It should be in "good proportion," which means it should be near the natural size as compared with other parts of the body. The ability to draw the figure in proper proportion requires considerable practice, close observation and accurate eye-measurement.
Drawing Men, Women, and Children
Proportions of the Human Figure: The Greek statues have regulated and determined the standard of beauty in art. These proportions, however, vary in individual cases and individual tastes. They are, however, valuable as a foundation from which modifications may be made.
In the Greek statues, the height of a developed man was usually eight heads; that is, the head was one-eighth the length of the body.
The height of a woman, Greek standard, about seven heads.
The human figure may be divided into four parts of equal length, namely:
1. From the top of the head to the arm-pit. 2. From the arm-pit to the middle of the body. 3. From the middle of the body to the knees. 4. From the knees to the soles of the feet.
From finger-tip to finger-tip, when the arms are extended at right angles to the body equals the length of the entire figure from crown to toes.
The face may be divided into three parts:
1. From the top of the forehead to the root of the nose.
2. From the root of the nose to the bottom of the nose.
3. From the bottom of the nose to the bottom of/the chin.
The ear is the length of the nose and its general direction is parallel to it. From the top of the shoulder to the elbow measures twice the length of the face. From the elbow to the wrist, is one head.
The hand measures three-quarters of a head from the tip of the middle finger to the wrist. The foot measures one-sixth of the whole length of the body.
These proportions are not exact or to be arbitrarily followed.
Drawing the Human Figure
Learning how to draw the Human Form efficiently and effectively takes a lot of time, practice and patience. I don’t pretend to be a master of anatomically correct drawing, but I do attempt to consult my charts and references often when I am trying to establish a believable looking figure. Understanding the structure of the human body and its extents and limits is the key in creating forms that are lifelike and realistic in a relative sense – you could be doing life drawings and attempt to be infinitely realistic, or you may be making simplistic cartoons or caricatures which should have some semblance of being anatomically correct.
There are many current and aspiring artists who neglect to refer to the basic fundamentals of anatomy and proportion and dismiss blatant errors as drawing in their own particular style. I’m not going to argue about being right and being wrong in this aspect, but if a body appears jarring and awkward to most people, chances are you’ve done something wrong when you were putting the pieces together. If something isn’t right about a figure that is meant to resemble the human form, (something that you are completely connected to and know and understand) you’ll notice right away. At times – when you draw it yourself, you become so engrossed in your work that you overlook the obvious. To avoid these embarrassing mistakes, make sure you take some time to review the basics of the human form and study the details before leaping into drawing subjects you don’t have a lot of practice with.
Here’re some examples of anatomically correct proportions that you should adhere to in order to achieve realistic looking figures.

Proportions - Male

Proportions - Male
Note that you’ll want to determine the height of your male on page, divide the height by 8, and work from there – you’ll see there are specific ratios for certain areas of the body. The measurements are determined by head units – one of the 8 divisions you set up is the size of the human head – everything is in relation to that one size.
· The body width = 2 1/3 heads
· The body height = 8 heads
· Distance between nipples on chest = 1 head
· Width of calf muscles together at lower arc = 1 head
· Bottom of the knees = 2 heads from ground level
For further reference, the diagram has a scale in feet to give you an idea of where certain body parts would be in relation to the heights/widths of other objects (vehicles, furniture, etc)

Proportions - Female

Proportions - Female
For women, the ratios differ slightly as the average form is smaller then the form of an average man. The overall height is measured in 8 Head Units, but because the female head is proportionately smaller, the figure will be smaller.
· The body width = 2 heads wide
· Waist = 1 head wide
· Buttocks = 1 1/2 heads wide
· Width of calf muscles together at mid-point = 1 head wide
· Bottom of the knees = 2 heads from ground level
Now you can alter the proportions slightly to exaggerate features, but you shouldn’t stray too far from the aforementioned guidelines, otherwise your figures will appear alien and awkward.
I hope this short lesson helps you improve on your technique.

lunes, 17 de septiembre de 2018




As a student of Technical graphics you are about to learn how to express your ideas using drawings, sketches and symbols. Ideas that are presented like this are easily understood by anyone who understands the language of Technical Graphics.
We live in a technological age. Every product and structure you see today began as an idea in somebody’s head.
Ones a new invention is thought of, a long process of design, refinement and manufacture is undertaken before the product is eventually sold.

Technical Graphics Equipment

Pencils are use for drawing lines. Different types of pencils allow you to draw lines of different weight and thickness. The grade of a pencil is denoted by the letters H, B.
H= Hard
B= Black
Types of pencils:
            Wooden pencil
            Fine line pencil or Mechanical pencil (refills)
            Clutch pencil
Graduated ruler
This is a precision tool we use to measure distances. It is usually made of plastic and has a bevelled edge (borde biselado) with the measurements marked in millimetres.
Set Squares
Set squares are use for drawing vertical and inclined lines.  Set squares are made from transparent plastic and there are two main types.
     - 45º set square- used to draw vertical lines and lines at 45º.
     - 30º/60º set square- used to draw vertical lines and lines at 30º and 60º
A protractor is used for measuring angles.
A compass is used to draw circles and arcs. Types: compass, a pencil compass and a bow compass.
Drawing paper
All technical graphics work is completed on drawing paper which comes in a number of standard sizes.
A0= 1189 mm x 84 mm= 1 m2
A1=  841mm x 594 mm
A2= 594 mm x 420 mm
A3= 420 mm x 297 mm
A4= 297 mm x 210 mm
A5= .......
Drawing Aids and Stencils
            - French Curves
            - Flexi Curves
            - Stencils: there are used for the drawing of circles, ellipses as well as various   graphical symbols.
            - Ink Pens: ink pens are used to draw lines of precise thickness.

How to draw parallel lines using set square
How to draw perpendicular lines using set square
Drawing angles with the set of triangles